Cover Image

Exploring the Demographic Factors and Facilitators to Addiction Abstinence

Maryam Taghva, Ramin Shiraly, Ebrahim Moghimi Sarani

Background: Accumulating evidence indicates a remarkable increase in substance addiction. Substance abuse and addiction impose severe social, political, economic, cultural and health-related damages on societies. Little is known, however, about demographic factors and facilitators to addiction abstinence. The purpose of the current study was to explore the factors associated with opioid avoidance.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to record socio-de­mographic data and facilitating factors to abstinence in 600 interviews, according to data collecting forms, with patients who had drug abuse disorders at Shiraz city during 2016. Correlation test, T-test, and ANOVA were employed for data analysis. P<0.05 was considered as the significance level. Result: There was a significant difference between mean abstinence time and demographic factors such as age, sex, occupation and marital status. Also, 53% of people reported that they had the longest abstinence time using the narcotics anonymous (NA) method. TO 33% of patients, the most important facilitating factor in abstinence according to the patient's opinion was family support.Conclusion: Individual, social, psychosocial and medical variables affect the abstinence duration of substance abuse. Identifying the factors associated with longer abstinence can be helpful in designing prevention and treatment programs for variables that affect the recurrence.[GMJ.2018;7:e1074]

Addiction; Abstinence; Substance Abuse; Demographic Factors; Opioid

Nestler EJ. Cellular basis of memory for addiction. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2013; 15(4): 431-43.

PMid:24459410 PMCid:PMC3898681

Elsheikh SE. Factors affecting long-term abstinence from substance use. Int J Ment Health Addiction. 2008; 6: 306-15.

Sussman S, Sussman AN. Considering the definition of addiction. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011; 8(10): 4025-38.

PMid:22073026 PMCid:PMC3210595

.WHO World drug report. Vienna. 2017; 1-35.

West R: Theory of addiction. Oxford: Blackwell publishing; 2005.

Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004; 291(10): 1238-45.


Scott CK, Dennis ML, Laudet A, Funk RR, Simeone RS. Surviving drug addiction: The effect of treatment and abstinence on mortality. Am J Public Health. 2011; 101(4): 737-44.

PMid:21330586 PMCid:PMC3052346

Gossop M, Stewart D, Browne N, Marsden J. Factors associated with abstinence, lapse or relapse to heroin use after residential treatment: protective effect of coping responses. Addiction. 2002; 97(10): 1259-67.


Abasi I, Mohammadkhani P. Family risk factors among women with addiction-related problems: An Integrative Review. Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2016; 5(2): 270-75.

PMid:27622169 PMCid:PMC5002339

UNODC World drug report. Vienna. 2016; 1-107.

Momtazi S, Rawson RA. Substance abuse among Iranian High school students. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2010; 23(3): 221-26.

PMid:20308905 PMCid:PMC4479403

Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ: Synopsis of Psychiatry. New York: Williams and Wilkins; 1998.

Qureshi zady SMA, Torabi K. Survey of mental illness combined with drug addiction in 200 patients referred to our center represents Tabriz. MJTUMS. 2002; 36(55): 49-53. [In Persian]

Back SE, Payne RL, Wahlquist AH, Carter RE, Stroud Z, Haynes L, et al. Comparative Profiles of Men and Women with Opioid Dependence: Results from a National Multisite Effectiveness Trial. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2011; 37(5): 313–23.

PMid:21854273 PMCid:PMC3164783

Laudet, A. The impact of Alcoholics Anonymous on other substance abuse related Twelve Step programs. In: Galanter M, Kaskutas LA. Eds. Recent developments in alcoholism: Research on Alcoholics Anonymous and spirituality in addiction recovery. Vol New York, NY: Springer; 2008: 71-89.

Kaskutas LA, Subbaraman MS, Witbrodt J, Zemore SE. Effectiveness of making Alcoholics Anonymous easier: A group format 12-step facilitation approach. J Subs Abuse Treat. 2009; 37: 228–39.

PMid:19339148 PMCid:PMC2746399

Zhou X, Nonnemaker J, Sherrill B, Gilsenan AW, Coste F, West R. Attempts to quit smoking and relapse: Factors associated with success or failure from the ATTEMPT cohort study. Addict Behav. 2009; 34(4): 365-73.


Jackson R, Wernicke R, Haaga DAF. Hope as a predictor of entering substance abuse treatment. Addict Behav. 2003; 28(1):13-28.

Sydsadqyh Ahari S. Factors affecting referrals to drug addiction treatment centers affiliated to the welfare of its representative in Tehran. J Ardabil UMS. 2004; 12: 36-40. [In Persian]

Seraji A, Momeni H, Salehi A. Factors in drug dependence and relapse to drug use self-help group of Khomein city. AMUJ. 2010; 13(3): 68-75. [In Persian]

Catalano LA, Elias JW, Ritz K. Predicting relapse substance abuse as a function of personality Dimensions. Alcohol Clin Ex Res. 1998; 22: 1041-47.

Farzam H. Compare results relative to relapsing Ultra rapid Opiate Detoxification and Drug Addicts in methadone substitution. KUMSJ. 2010; 3: 189-95. [In Persian]

Lowinson JH, Ruiz P, Millman RB, Longrod JG: Substance abuse: A comprehensive textbook. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1996.

Tatary F, Shakeri J, Nasiri A, Ghelichi L, Abdoli Gh. Rate of relapse in opioid-dependent individuals Naltrexone maintenance therapy refer to therapeutic center - Kermanshah Rehabilitation (1381-1382). KUMS. 2006; 10(3): 338-42 [In Persian]

Hoeve M, Stams GJJM, van der Put CE, Semon Dubas J, van der Laan PH, Gerris JRM. A Meta-analysis of Attachment to Parents and Delinquency. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2012; 40: 771-85.

PMid:22278802 PMCid:PMC3375078

Laudet A, Savage R, Mahmood D. Pathways to long-term recovery: A preliminary investigation. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2002; 34(3): 305-11.

PMid:12422942 PMCid:PMC1852519

Clark RE. Family support and substance use outcomes for persons with mental illness and substance use disorders. Schizophr Bull. 2001; 27(1): 93-101.



  • There are currently no refbacks.