How to Prepare Biological Samples and Live Tissues for Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

Abolfazl Mehdizadeh Kashi, Kobra Tahemanesh, Shahla Chaichian, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Fateme Moradi, Seyed Mohammad Tavangar, Ashraf Sadat Mousavi Najafabadi, Nasrin Lotfibakhshaiesh, Shahram Pour Beyranvand, Abbas Fazel Anvari-Yazdi, Seyedeh Mehr Abed

In this article we review the application and procedures involved in scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe biological and live tissues through using SEM at high resolution. We discuss practical methods for optimizing tissue preservation to achieve the two principal goals of biological specimen preparation: (a) preserving biological structures as close to their living configuration as possible, and (b) rendering them visible with the desired imaging method. We also review and discuss the relative merits of different fixing (chemical fixation and cryofixation), drying (air-drying, critical point-drying, freeze-drying and chemical-drying) and coating procedures of biological specimens with metals to facilitate visualization in the SEM.

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); Biological Samples, Live Tissues, Sample Preparation

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