Cover Image

Evaluation of the Persian Version of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey among Iranian Nurses: Validity and Reliability

Saba Moalemi, Zahra Kavoosi, Najimeh Beygi, Azizallah Deghan, Aliasghar Karimi, Mohammad Mahdi Parvizi

Background: Nursing is a critical job in the health care system. However, nurses suffering from poor job conditions suffer from job dissatisfaction, eventually causing burnout. This is a very important concern for the health care system because the turnover of nurses leads to a waste of money and time of this system. Therefore, nurse managers need to find a way to measure and reduce the burnout. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) is a famous inventory to measure the job burnout in human services. This study aimed to measure the validity and reliability of the Persian version of MBI-HSS. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in two hospitals of Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fars Province, Iran, in July 2017. Nurses participated with their own discretion in this study and filled the MBI-HSS themselves. The questionnaire consisted of 22 items comprising three dimensions. Exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach’s  alpha were performed in this study using Stata software, version 12. Results: Overall, 200 nurses were included in this study, with a mean age of 29.48 ± 6 years. The result of the exploratory factor analysis showed that the weight of each item in its own dimension was greater than 0.4 or another dimension. Also, the Cronbach’s alpha for 3 dimensions was greater than 0.7. Conclusions:  Our study showed that the Persian version of MBI-HSS has sufficient validity and reliability, similar to that of the original version, for the measurement of burnout in Persian speakers of human services workers.[GMJ.2018;7:e995]

Nurses; Job; Maslach; Burnout; Inventory; Human Services; Persian version

Spoor E, de Jonge J, Hamers JP. Design of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:293. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-293.

Abushaikha L, Saca-Hazboun H. Job satisfaction and burnout among Palestinian nurses. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15(1):190-7.


McHugh MD, Kutney-Lee A, Cimiotti JP, Sloane DM, Aiken LH. Nurses' widespread job dissatisfaction, burnout, and frustration with health benefits signal problems for patient care. Health Aff (Millwood). 2011;30(2):202-10. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0100.

Jones CB. Revisiting nurse turnover costs: adjusting for inflation. J Nurs Adm. 2008;38(1):11-8. doi:10.1097/01.NNA.0000295636.03216.6f.

Halbesleben JR, Buckley MR. Burnout in organizational life. Journal of management. 2004;30(6):859-79.

Weber A, Jaekel-Reinhard A. Burnout syndrome: a disease of modern societies? Occupational medicine. 2000;50(7):512-7.


Perlman B, Hartman EA. Burnout: Summary and future research. Human relations. 1982;35(4):283-305.

Freudenberger HJ. Staff burn‐out. Journal of social issues. 1974;30(1):159-65.

Maslach C. A multidimensional theory of burnout. Theories of organizational stress. 1998;68.

Leiter MP, Maslach C, Frame K. Burnout. The encyclopedia of clinical psychology. 1998.

Kraut A. Job satisfaction: application, assessment, causes, and consequences. Personnel Psychology. 1998;51(2):513.

Farber BA. Introduction: Understanding and treating burnout in a changing culture. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2000;56(5):589-94.<589::AID-JCLP1>3.0.CO;2-S

Maslach C, Jackson, S.E., Leiter, M.P., Schaufeli, W.B. and Schwab R.L. . Maslach burnout inventory sampler set manual, general survey, human services survey, educators survey, & scoring guides. Mind Garden Publishers, Menlo Park. 1986.

Antoun RB, Salameh P. La satisfaction des pharmaciens au Liban et la perspective de la pharmacie clinique. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2009;15(6).


Loera B, Converso D, Viotti S. Evaluating the psychometric properties of the maslach burnout inventory-human services survey (MBI-HSS) among italian nurses: how many factors must a researcher consider? PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e114987.

PMid:25501716 PMCid:PMC4264862

Lheureux F, Truchot D, Borteyrou X, Rascle N. The maslach burnout inventory–Human services survey (mbi-hss): factor structure, wording effect and psychometric qualities of known problematic items. Le travail humain. 2017;80(2):161-86.

Córdoba L, Tamayo JA, González MA, Martínez MI, Rosales A, Barbato SH. Adaptation and validation of the Maslach Burnout inventory-human services survey in Cali, Colombia. Colombia Médica. 2011;42(3):286-93.

Hawthorne G, Richardson J, Osborne R. The Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) instrument: a psychometric measure of health-related quality of life. Quality of Life Research. 1999;8(3):209-24.


Ghaem H, Borhani Haghighi A, Zeighami B, Dehghan A. Validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Parkinson disease quality of life (PDQL) questionnaire. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. 2015.

Tan LC, Luo N, Nazri M, Li SC, Thumboo J. Validity and reliability of the PDQ-39 and the PDQ-8 in English-speaking Parkinson's disease patients in Singapore. Parkinsonism & related disorders. 2004;10(8):493-9.


Galanakis M, Moraitou M, Garivaldis FJ, Stalikas A. Factorial structure and psychometric properties of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) in Greek midwives. Europe's Journal of Psychology. 2009;5(4):52-70.

Zareifar S, Haghpanah S, Beigipour Z, Hosseini S, Molavi MA, Naderi M. Job satisfaction and stress levels of nurses working in oncology wards; a multicenter study. Galen Medical Journal. 2017;6(2):128-35.

Mandhouj O, Etter J-F, Courvoisier D, Aubin H-J. French-language version of the World Health Organization quality of life spirituality, religiousness and personal beliefs instrument. Health and quality of life outcomes. 2012;10(1):39.

PMid:22515747 PMCid:PMC3462699

Kim H, Ji J. Factor structure and longitudinal invariance of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Research on Social Work Practice. 2009;19(3):325-39.

Richardsen AM, Martinussen M. The Maslach Burnout Inventory: Factorial validity and consistency across occupational groups in Norway. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 2004;77(3):377-84.

Schaufeli WB, Bakker AB, Hoogduin K, Schaap C, Kladler A. On the clinical validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Burnout Measure. Psychology & health. 2001;16(5):565-82.



  • There are currently no refbacks.